Helping Solve Processing and Materials  Problems using Scanning Probe Microscopy since 1990.

CD stamper bumps, perspective view


Phone:  1-800-374-8557  Fax: 1-317-895-5652

Search this site.


: Products and services for AFM, STM, and SEM
: Applications of AFM and STM
   : CD
   : DVD
   : HD-DVD
   : Hard Disks
   : Magnetic Tape
   : More
: Pharmaceutical materials
     : Collagen fibers
     : Collagen monomers
     : DNA Plasmids
   : Polymer molecules
   : Orthopedic implants
   : Opthamalic Devices
   : Diagnostic devices
   : And More
   : Powders
   : Naturally occurring (cellulose)
   : Blends
   : Copolymers
   : Material domains
   : Paper
   : Packaging materials
   : Cast, extruded, or molded polymers
: Coatings
   : Paint
   : Paper finishing
   : Can coatings
: Electronic Materials
   : Silicon
   : Silicon Carbide
   : Germanium
   : Gallium Arsenide
   : Wafers
   : Thin Films
: Automotive
   : Corrosion
   : Wear
: Energy Technologies
   : Corrosion
   : Calalysts
: New materials including ultra high strength magnets
: Optics & Photonics
   : Diffraction Gratings
   : Modified surfaces
   : superpolished optics
   : Ultrasmooth surfaces
   : IR
   : Visible Light
   : UV
   : X-Ray
: Telecommunications

: Metals

:Gallery of interesting images



Friction Imaging

We use Lateral Force Microscopy (LFM) to measure frictional forces resulting from the AFM probe scanning over a sample. When the probe crosses an area of the sample which has a higher friction coefficient, the cantilever will display a greater amount of torque. The opposite is true for areas with lower coefficients of friction. Here 'high' and 'low' are relative terms, for instance a 'sticky' contaminant on glass may have a 'higher' coefficient of friction than the surrounding substrate. Thus, the contaminant would appear brighter in the friction image. In the image below, where the contaminant could be said to be 'slippery' (having a low friction coefficient), the contaminant appears darker in the friction image.

Contaminant on Glass Substrate

Height and friction image of contaminants (fingerprint/skin oils) on a glass substrate.
Height                                      Friction

Mixed molecular monolayer (Langmuir-Blodgett thin film on mica)

Height and friction image of a heterogeneous thin film.
Height                                      Friction

In-depth Analysis.

The interpretation of observed frictional forces in terms of friction coefficients requires care if numerical results are needed.  Recall that the friction coefficient relates the friction force to the normal force.  We have developed analytical test procedures that provide a more robust ranking of the friction coefficients of different samples than could be achieved otherwise.


Trademark and Copyright Notice


Hit Counter