Helping Solve Processing and Materials  Problems using Scanning Probe Microscopy since 1990.

CD stamper bumps, perspective view


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: Products and services for AFM, STM, and SEM
: Applications of AFM and STM
   : CD
   : DVD
   : HD-DVD
   : Hard Disks
   : Magnetic Tape
   : More
: Pharmaceutical materials
     : Collagen fibers
     : Collagen monomers
     : DNA Plasmids
   : Polymer molecules
   : Orthopedic implants
   : Opthamalic Devices
   : Diagnostic devices
   : And More
   : Powders
   : Naturally occurring (cellulose)
   : Blends
   : Copolymers
   : Material domains
   : Paper
   : Packaging materials
   : Cast, extruded, or molded polymers
: Coatings
   : Paint
   : Paper finishing
   : Can coatings
: Electronic Materials
   : Silicon
   : Silicon Carbide
   : Germanium
   : Gallium Arsenide
   : Wafers
   : Thin Films
: Automotive
   : Corrosion
   : Wear
: Energy Technologies
   : Corrosion
   : Calalysts
: New materials including ultra high strength magnets
: Optics & Photonics
   : Diffraction Gratings
   : Modified surfaces
   : superpolished optics
   : Ultrasmooth surfaces
   : IR
   : Visible Light
   : UV
   : X-Ray
: Telecommunications

: Metals

:Gallery of interesting images



Precision Measurement of Optical Disc Media and More 

Optical Disc Media

DiscTrack Plus is a critical tool for testing optical discs. It reveals pit and groove geometry, track pitch, wobble, jitter and more. It is a crucial tool for the development of new formats, when disc players are scarce or unavailable. It is the perfect complement to electrical disc analyzers in process optimization and troubleshooting to support production.  DiscTrack Plus supports more than half the world's production of DVDs amd Blu-Ray discs (as of 2013).

: Optical Disc Publications:

: Magnification Calibration Standards and Optical Gratings Publications

Magnetic Disk Media

Pre-patterned media ("Bit Patterned Media" and "Discrete Track Recording") are currently the subject of much research in the hard disk industry.  Pre-patterned media are analogous to optical disc media and DiscTrack Plus should be used to make very precise and accurate measurements from SEM and AFM images of the media masters, stampers or actual media. [updated 9/23/2008]

: Magnetic Media Publications

  • "Picometer-scale Accuracy in Position Measurements of NanoDots in a 525 Gdot/in2 Pattern", [3.2 MB pdf file], Donald A. Chernoff and David L. Burkhead.  Poster presented at Diskcon 2008, 9/17-18/2008.
    Patterned magnetic media require nanometer control of track pitch and feature size variation.  Nanometer control implies picometer metrology.  We use an ordinary open-loop AFM with additional offline calibration and measurement software to measure pitch and pitch variation.  In systematic measurements on a 144 nm pitch 2-Dimensional square grating (31 G dot/in2) we measured individual pitch variation of 0.55 nm (1 σ) and average pitch to an accuracy of 40 pm (1 σ).  Accuracy was confirmed by optical diffraction measurements at a national standards laboratory. 
    SEM of a 76 nm pitch 1-dimensional grating (334k tracks/in) showed individual pitch variation of 167 pm  (1 σ).

    SEM of a 35 nm pitch 2-dimensional grating (525 G dot/in2) showed individual pitch variation of 80 pm (1 σ). This precision suggests we can measure the average pitch to an accuracy of 10 pm (1 σ).
  • "High Accuracy Measurements of Patterned Media", [590 kB pdf file] poster presented at DiskCon, September, 2007.  See also  Picometer-scale accuracy in pitch metrology by optical diffraction and atomic force microscopy” [1 MB pdf file] and Measuring_Nanometers-with-Picometer_Accuracy [4MB pdf], which give further discussion of our accuracy claims.  

Read about MagneTrack.  The tool for measuring track pitch, bit placement and amplitude jitter in MFM images.

: Fundamental Measurement Patents

Everything you need to know but were afraid to ask about calibration and measurement from X to Z:

  • "High precision calibration and feature measurement system for a scanning probe microscope".
    US Patent 5,644,512, filed March 4, 1996, issued July 1, 1997. 
    Inventors:  Donald A. Chernoff and Jason D. Lohr.
    Text (78 kB)	Scan (3554 kB)
  • "High precision calibration and feature measurement system for a scanning probe microscope."
    US Patent 5,825,670, filed March 5, 1997, issued October 20, 1998. 
    Inventors:  Donald A. Chernoff and Jason D. Lohr.
    Text (160 kB)	Scan (6777 kB)


: Future and Recent Conferences and Trade Shows:

  • SPIE Advanced Lithography - poster presentation 2/26/2010

  • SPIE Advanced Lithography - poster presentation 2/25/2008.

  • Diskcon, Santa Clara, CA.  9/19-20/2007.  Exhibit and poster presentation.

    Materials Research Society, Boston. Nov.29-Dec.1, 2005.   Booth 824, shared with Applied Nanofluorescence.  
    Media-Tech Showcase and Conference, Frankfurt Germany, Oct. 4-5, 2005.  Stand L11.  
    ISOM/ODS (Optical Data Storage). Honolulu. July 10-14, 2005.  
    Media-Tech Expo, Las Vegas.  May 10-12, 2005.  Booth 11.011 5010-ASM Booth Media-Tech 0505-LR.JPG (98258 bytes)
  • Forensic Sciences Symposium, Indianapolis.  January 24, 2005.

  • Entertainment Media Expo/Media-Tech Showcase.  Hollywood, California.  August 31-Sept.1, 2004.   

  • Media-Tech Exposition, Frankfurt, Germany.  May 25-27, 2004.  Stand 3.0 H30

  • Media-Tech Showcase and Conference, Frankfurt, Germany October 2003


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